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Smokefree Publications

Smokefree.gov resources have been included in numerous academic research studies that have resulted in important findings published in various peer-reviewed journals.

The Smokefree.gov team uses a wide variety of behavioral and user research and evaluation strategies to promote increased engagement and use of our many Smokefree.gov digital resources with the aim of encouraging successful, long-term smoking cessation across the diverse audiences we serve. In addition, Smokefree.gov resources are included in academic research studies within and outside the U.S. to further advance the evidence-base for behavioral health mHealth smoking cessation programs.

The accompanying list of peer-reviewed publications include findings from Smokefree.gov research studies along with contributions from collaborators from the fields of tobacco control, mHealth, and health behavior change. Please note that articles may have relevance to more than one category and some articles may require paid access.

Smoking Cessation Research

Augustson, E., Engelgau, M. M., Shu, Z., Ying, C., Cher, W., Richun, L., & ... Bromberg, J. E. (2017). Text to Quit China: An mHealth smoking cessation trial. American Journal of Health Promotion, 31(3), 217-225.

Collins, B. N., & Lepore, S. J. (2017). Babies Living Safe & Smokefree: Randomized controlled trial of a multilevel multimodal behavioral intervention to reduce low-income children's tobacco smoke exposureBMC Public Health17(1), 249. doi:10.1186/s12889-017-4145-7

Hoeppner, B.B., Hoeppner, S.S., & Abroms L.C. (2017). How do text-messaging smoking cessation interventions confer benefit? A multiple mediation analysis of Text2Quit. Addiction, 112(4): 673-682.

Pechmann, C., Delucchi, K., Lakon, C.M., & Prochaska, J.J. (2017). Randomised controlled trial evaluation of Tweet2Quit: A social network quit-smoking intervention. Tobacco Control, 26: 188-194.

Ramo, D., Thrul, J., Delucchi, K., Hall, S.M., Ling, P., Belohlavek, A., Zhao, S., Han, B., & Prochaska J. (2017). The tobacco status project: Three month outcomes for a randomized controlled trial of a Facebook smoking cessation intervention for young adults. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 171: e173.

Watson, N.L., Heffner, J.L., McClure, J.B., Mull, K.E., & Bricker J.L. (2017). Differential prevalence of established risk factors for poor cessation outcomes among smokers by level of social anxiety. The American Journal on Addictions, 26(2):176-182.

Yu, S., Duan, Z., Redmon, P. B., Eriksen, M. P., Koplan, J. P., & Huang, C. (2017). mHealth intervention is effective in creating smoke-free homes for newborns: A randomized controlled trial study in China. Scientific Reports, 7(1).

Christofferson, D.E., Hertzberg, J.S., Beckham, J.C., Dennis, P.A. & Hamlett-Berry K. (2016). Engagement and abstinence among users of a smoking cessation text message program for veterans. Addictive Behaviors, 62: 47-53.

Squiers, L., Brown, D., Parvanta, S., Dolina, S., Kelly, B., Dever, J., Southwell, B.G., Sanders, A., & Augustson E. (2016). The SmokefreeTXT (SFTXT) Study: Web and mobile data collection to evaluate smoking cessation for young adults. JMIR Research Protocols, 5(2): e134.

Squiers, L.B., Augustson, E., Brown, D., Kelly, B., Southwell, B., Dever, J., Dolina, S., Tzeng, J., Parvanta, S., Holt, S., Sanders, A., Zulkiewicz, B., & Hunt Y. (2016). An experimental comparison of mobile texting programs to help young adults quit smoking. Health Systems, 6(1): 1-14.

Jones, H.A., Heffner, J.L., Mercer, L., Wyszynski, C.M., Vilardaga, R., & Bricker J.B. (2015). Web-based acceptance and commitment therapy smoking cessation treatment for smokers with depressive symptoms. Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 11(1): 56-62.

Ramo, D. E., Thrul, J., Delucchi, K.L., Ling, P.M., Hall, S.M., & Prochaska J.J. (2015). The Tobacco Status Project (TSP): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a Facebook smoking cessation intervention for young adults. BMC Public Health, 15: 897.

Schindler-Ruwisch, J., Augustson, E., Lynch, K., & Patrick H. (2015). BMI and smoking: interrelated factors among cessation website users. American Journal of Health Behavior, 39(3): 330-337.

Abroms, L.C., Boal, A.L., Simmens, S.J., Mendel, J.A., & Windsor R.A. (2014). A randomized trial of Text2Quit: a text messaging program for smoking cessation. Journal of Preventive Medicine, 47(3): 242-250.

Fraser, D., Kobinsky, K., Smith, S.S., Kramer, J., & Theobald W.E. (2014). Five population-based interventions for smoking cessation: A MOST trial. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 4 (4): 382-390.

Bricker, J., Wyszynski, C., Comstock, B., & Heffner J.L. (2013). Pilot randomized controlled trial of web-based acceptance and commitment therapy for smoking cessation. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 15(10): 1756-1764.

Collins, L.M., Baker, T.B., Mermelstein, R.J., Piper, M.E., Jorenby, D.E., Smith, S.S., Christiansen, B.A., Schlam, T.R., Cook, J.W., & Fiore M.C. (2011). The multiphase optimization strategy for engineering effective tobacco use interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 41(2): 208-226.

Developments in mHealth Research

Coa, K.I., Augustson, E., & Kaufman A. (2017). The impact of weight and weight-related perceptions on smoking status among young adults in a text-messaging smoking cessation program. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 0(0):1-6.

Grau, L.E., Pham, T., O’Leary, T., Weiss, J., Toll, B., & Bernstein S.L. (2017). Smokers’ perspectives on texting for tobacco dependence treatment: A qualitative analysis. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 19(3): 307-313.

Hoeppner, B.B., Hoeppner, S.S., & Abroms L.C. (2017). How do text-messaging smoking cessation interventions confer benefit? A multiple mediation analysis of Text2Quit. Addiction, 112(4): 673-682.

Pechmann, C., Delucchi, K., Lakon, C.M., & Prochaska, J.J. (2017). Randomised controlled trial evaluation of Tweet2Quit: A social network quit-smoking intervention. Tobacco Control, 26: 188-194.

Yu, S., Duan, Z., Redmon, P. B., Eriksen, M. P., Koplan, J. P., & Huang, C. (2017). mHealth intervention is effective in creating smoke-free homes for newborns: A randomized controlled trial study in China. Scientific Reports, 7(1).

Bernstein, S.L., Rosner, J. & Toll B. (2016). A multicomponent intervention including texting to promote tobacco abstinence in emergency department smokers: A pilot study. Academic Emergency Medicine, 23(7): 803-808.

Coa, K. and Patrick, H. (2016). Baseline motivation type as a predictor of dropout in a healthy eating text messaging program. JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth, 4(3): e114.

Kim, A., Hansen, H., Duke, J., Davis, K., Alexander, R., Rowland, A., & Mitchko J. (2016). Does digital ad exposure influence information-seeking behavior online? Evidence from the 2012 Tips from Former Smokers national tobacco prevention campaign. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 18(3): e64.

Squiers, L., Brown, D., Parvanta, S., Dolina, S., Kelly, B., Dever, J., Southwell, B.G., Sanders, A., & Augustson E. (2016). The SmokefreeTXT (SFTXT) Study: Web and mobile data collection to evaluate smoking cessation for young adults. JMIR Research Protocols, 5(2): e134.

Squiers, L.B., Augustson, E., Brown, D., Kelly, B., Southwell, B., Dever, J., Dolina, S., Tzeng, J., Parvanta, S., Holt, S., Sanders, A., Zulkiewicz, B., & Hunt Y. (2016). An experimental comparison of mobile texting programs to help young adults quit smoking. Health Systems, 6(1): 1-14.

Stoyneva, I., Coa, K., Pugatch, J., Sanders, A., Schwarz, M., & Cole-Lewis H. (2016). SmokefreeTXT behavior change technique analysis. Journal of Smoking Cessation, Published First Online: [20 December, 2016].

Abroms, L.C., Whittaker, R., Free, C., Van Alstyne J.M., & Schindler-Ruwisch J.M. (2015). Developing and pretesting a text messaging program for health behavior change: Recommended steps. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth, 3(4): e017.

Abroms, L., Hershcovitz, R., Boal, A., & Levine H. (2015). Feasibility and acceptability of a text messaging program for smoking cessation in Israel. Journal of Health Communication, 20: 903-909.

Cole-Lewis, H., Pugatch, J., Sanders, A., Varghese, A., Posada, S., Yun, C., Schwarz, M., & Augustson E. (2015). Social listening: A content analysis of e-cigarette discussions on Twitter. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 117(10: e243.

Cole-Lewis, H., Varghese, A., Sanders, A., Schwarz, M., Pugatch, J., & Augustson A. (2015). Assessing electronic cigarette-related tweets for sentiment and content using supervised machine learning. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 17(8): e208.

Davis, K. C., Alexander, R. J., Shafer, P., Mann, N., Malarcher, A., & Zhang, L. (2015). The dose–response relationship between tobacco education advertising and calls to quitlines in the United States, March–June, 2012Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research, Practice, And Policy12

Heffner, J.L., Vilardaga, R. Mercer, L.D., Kientz, J.A., & Bricker J.B. (2015). Feature-level analysis of a novel smartphone application for smoking cessation. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 41(1): 68-73.

Bricker, J.B., Mull, K.E., Kientz, J.A., Vilardaga, R., Mercer, L.D., Akioka, K.J., & Heffner J. L. (2014). Randomized, controlled pilot trial of a smartphone app for smoking cessation using acceptance and commitment therapy. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 143: 87-94.

Businelle M.S. (2014). The potential of mHealth for tobacco dependence treatment: Domestic and international examples from NCI’s Smokefree.gov Initiative. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 16(7): 1033.

Emery, S. L., Szczypka, G., Abril, E. P., Kim, Y., & Vera, L. (2014). Are you scared yet? Evaluating fear appeal messages in tweets about the Tips campaignJournal of Communication64(2), 278-295. doi:10.1111/jcom.12083

Zeng, E.Y., Vilardaga, R., Heffner, J.L., Mull, K.E., & Bricker J.L. (2014). Predictors of utilization of a novel smoking cessation smartphone app. Telemedicine and e-Health, 21(12).

Heffner, J.L., Wyszynski, C.M., Comstock, B., Mercer, L.D., & Bricker J. (2013). Overcoming recruitment challenges of web-based interventions for tobacco use: The case of web-based acceptance and commitment therapy for smoking cessation. Addictive Behaviors, 38(10): 2473-2476.

McAfee, T., Davis, K., Alexander R.L., Pechacek, T.F., & Bunnell, R. (2013). Effect of the first federally funded US antismoking national media campaign. The Lancet, 382(9909), 2003-2011.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Increases in quitline calls and smoking cessation website visitors during a national tobacco education campaign—March 19-June 10, 2012. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 61(34): 667-670.

Finney Rutten, L.J., Davis, K., Squiers, L., Augustson, E., & Blake K. (2011). Physician awareness and referral to national smoking cessation quitlines and web-based resources. Journal of Cancer Education, 26(1): 79-81.

Stoddard, J. L., Augustson, E. M., & Mabry P. L. (2006). The importance of usability testing in the development of an internet-based smoking cessation treatment resource. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 8(Suppl. 1): S87-S93.

User Engagement

Sanders, A., Robinson, C., Taylor, S. C., Post, S. D., Goldfarb, J., Shi, R., . . . Augustson, E. M. (2017). Using a media campaign to increase engagement with a mobile-based youth smoking cessation program. Am J Health Promot.

Christofferson, D.E., Hertzberg, J.S., Beckham, J.C., Dennis, P.A. & Hamlett-Berry K. (2016). Engagement and abstinence among users of a smoking cessation text message program for veterans. Addictive Behaviors, 62: 47-53.

Cole-Lewis, H., Augustson, E., Sanders, A., Schwarz, M., Geng, Y., Coa, K., & Hunt Y. (2016). Analysing user-reported data for enhancement of SmokefreeTXT: A national text message smoking cessation intervention. Tobacco Control, Published Online First: [22 November 2016].

Cole-Lewis, H., Perotte, A., Galica, K., Dreyer, L., Griffith, C., Schwarz, M., Yun, C., Patrick, H., Coa, K., & Augustson E. (2016). Social network behavior and engagement within a smoking cessation Facebook page. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 18(8):e205.

Taber, J.M., Klein, W.M., Ferrer, R.A., Augustson, E., & Patrick H. (2016). A pilot test of self-affirmations to promote smoking cessation in a national smoking cessation text messaging program. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth, 4(2):e71.

Zeng, E.Y., Vilardaga, R., Heffner, J.L., Mull, K.E., & Bricker J.L. (2014). Predictors of utilization of a novel smoking cessation smartphone app. Telemedicine and e-Health, 21(12).

Bricker, J., Wyszynski, C., Comstock, B., & Heffner J.L. (2013). Pilot randomized controlled trial of web-based acceptance and commitment therapy for smoking cessation. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 15(10): 1756-1764.

Post, S.D., Taylor, S.C., Sanders, A.E., Goldfarb, J.M., Hunt, Y.M., & Augustson E.M. (2013). If you build (and moderate) it, they will come: The Smokefree Women Facebook page. Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monogram, (47): 206-208.

Stoddard J., Augustson, E., & Moser R. (2008). Effect of adding a virtual community (bulletin board) to Smokefree.gov: Randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 10(5):e53.

Special Populations

Cameron, L.D., Durazo, A., Ramírez, A.S., Corona, R., Ulteras, M., & Piva S. (2017). Cultural and linguistic adaptation of a healthy diet text message intervention for Hispanic adults living in the United States. Journal of Health Communication, 22(3): 262-273.

Collins, B. N., & Lepore, S. J. (2017). Babies Living Safe & Smokefree: Randomized controlled trial of a multilevel multimodal behavioral intervention to reduce low-income children's tobacco smoke exposureBMC Public Health17(1), 249. doi:10.1186/s12889-017-4145-7

Coa, K.I., Augustson, E., & Kaufman A. (2017). The impact of weight and weight-related perceptions on smoking status among young adults in a text-messaging smoking cessation program. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 0(0):1-6.

Ramo, D., Thrul, J., Delucchi, K., Hall, S.M., Ling, P., Belohlavek, A., Zhao, S., Han, B., & Prochaska J. (2017). The tobacco status project: Three month outcomes for a randomized controlled trial of a Facebook smoking cessation intervention for young adults. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 171: e173.

Christofferson, D.E., Hertzberg, J.S., Beckham, J.C., Dennis, P.A. & Hamlett-Berry K. (2016). Engagement and abstinence among users of a smoking cessation text message program for veterans. Addictive Behaviors, 62: 47-53.

Christofferson, D. E., Hamlett-Berry, K., & Augustson, E. (2015). Suicide prevention referrals in a mobile health smoking cessation interventionAmerican Journal of Public Health105(8), e7-e9.

Jones, H.A., Heffner, J.L., Mercer, L., Wyszynski, C.M., Vilardaga, R., & Bricker J.B. (2015). Web-based acceptance and commitment therapy smoking cessation treatment for smokers with depressive symptoms. Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 11(1): 56-62.

Ramo, D. E., Thrul, J., Delucchi, K.L., Ling, P.M., Hall, S.M., & Prochaska J.J. (2015). The Tobacco Status Project (TSP): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a Facebook smoking cessation intervention for young adults. BMC Public Health, 15: 897.

More For You

Are you a health professional? Help smokers quit with these evidence-based resources from Smokefree.gov.
Understand why you feel like you need to smoke so that you can avoid triggers and deal with nicotine withdrawal.
There is no formula for discussing smoking cessation medications with your patient, and Smokefree.gov has created references to help.
You can use Smokefree data or products in your smoking cessation and mHealth projects. Find out how you can get started.